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Thebe 木卫十四(中英对照)

时间:2011-01-27 12:30?? ?点击:
TAGS:对照,中英,十四,the,of,and 翻译

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    Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest:

    orbit:    149,600,000 km (1.00 AU) from Sun

    diameter: 12,756.3 km

    mass:     5.972e24 kg

    Earth is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek/Roman mythology. The name derives from Old English and Germanic. There are, of course, hundreds of other names for the planet in other languages. In Roman Mythology, the goddess of the Earth was Tellus - the fertile soil (Greek: Gaia, terra mater - Mother Earth).

    It was not until the time of Copernicus (the sixteenth century) that it was understood that the Earth is just another planet.

    Earth, of course, can be studied without the aid of spacecraft. Nevertheless it was not until the twentieth century that we had maps of the entire planet. Pictures of the planet taken from space are of considerable importance; for example, they are an enormous help in weather prediction and especially in tracking and predicting hurricanes. And they are extraordinarily beautiful.

    The Earth is divided into several layers which have distinct chemical and seismic properties (depths in km):

    0-  40  Crust

    40- 400  Upper mantle

    400- 650  Transition region

    650-2700  Lower mantle

    2700-2890  D layer

    2890-5150  Outer core

    5150-6378  Inner core

    The crust varies considerably in thickness, it is thinner under the oceans, thicker under the continents. The inner core and crust are solid; the outer core and mantle layers are plastic or semi-fluid. The various layers are separated by discontinuities which are evident in seismic data; the best known of these is the Mohorovicic discontinuity between the crust and upper mantle.

    Most of the mass of the Earth is in the mantle, most of the rest in the core; the part we inhabit is a tiny fraction of the whole (values below x10^24 kilograms):

    atmosphere     = 0.0000051

    oceans         = 0.0014

    crust          = 0.026

    mantle         = 4.043

    outer core     = 1.835

    inner core     = 0.09675

    The core is probably composed mostly of iron (or nickel/iron) though it is possible that some lighter elements may be present, too. Temperatures at the center of the core may be as high as 7500 K, hotter than the surface of the Sun. The lower mantle is probably mostly silicon, magnesium and oxygen with some iron, calcium and aluminum. The upper mantle is mostly olivine and pyroxene (iron/magnesium silicates), calcium and aluminum. We know most of this only from seismic techniques; samples from the upper mantle arrive at the surface as lava from volcanoes but the majority of the Earth is inaccessible. The crust is primarily quartz (silicon dioxide) and other silicates like feldspar. Taken as a whole, the Earth's chemical composition (by mass) is:

    34.6%  Iron

    29.5%  Oxygen

    15.2%  Silicon

    12.7%  Magnesium

    2.4%  Nickel

    1.9%  Sulfur

    0.05% Titanium

    The Earth is the densest major body in the solar system.

    The other terrestrial planets probably have similar structures and compositions with some differences: the Moon has at most a small core; Mercury has an extra large core (relative to its diameter); the mantles of Mars and the Moon are much thicker; the Moon and Mercury may not have chemically distinct crusts; Earth may be the only one with distinct inner and outer cores. Note, however, that our knowledge of planetary interiors is mostly theoretical even for the Earth.

    Unlike the other terrestrial planets, Earth's crust is divided into several separate solid plates which float around independently on top of the hot mantle below. The theory that describes this is known as plate tectonics. It is characterized by two major processes: spreading and subduction. Spreading occurs when two plates move away from each other and new crust is created by upwelling magma from below. Subduction occurs when two plates collide and the edge of one dives beneath the other and ends up being destroyed in the mantle. There is also transverse motion at some plate boundaries (i.e. the San Andreas Fault in California) and collisions between continental plates (i.e. India/Eurasia). There are (at present) eight major plates:

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On avance
Au fil du temps
Au gre du vent .. ainsi..
On vit au jour le jour
Nos envies, nos amours
On s’en va sans savoir
On est toujours
Dans la meme histoire...
La meme histoire...

我们顺著风、
随著时间前进…
我们日复一日活在
我们的欲望,我们的爱情中
不断前进却不知道
我们始终
活在相同的故事里..
相同的故事...

On vit au jour le jour
Nos envies ,nos amours
On s’en va sans savoir
On est toujours
Dans la meme histoire

我们日复一日活在
我们的欲望,我们的爱情中
不断前进却不知道
我们始终
活在相同的故事里..
 

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